CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & HOW GLOBAL COMPANIES SHOULD ADOPT ETHICAL STRATEGIES IN WORLD-WIDE OPERATIONS.

A review of  NIKE company  -Written by Esther Obong

The purpose of this paper is to take an in-depth look at Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), evaluate the prominent debates concerning corporate social responsibility and how global companies seek to adopt suitable effective ethical strategies in their operations. This paper will adopt the “NIKE incorporation” as a case study for the function of this paper and examples of CSR will be drawn from the company as a supporting viewpoint. The paper will begin by defining the term “corporate social responsibility”. Some light will be shed on the term “ethics” and the various debates concerning corporate social responsibility supported by academic sources.
According to (Peter Utting 2005), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a thought that has been roughly available for well more than 50 years and has gotten to be noticeable again recently. An increasing amount of transnational corporations (TNCs) and infinite household organization, upheld by business and trade affiliations, are receiving a variety of supposed wilful CSR conduct that consolidates, for a case, set of principle methods to improve environmental organization frameworks and occupational health and safety, what's more, wellbeing. The organization’s 'triple bottom line' covers the financial, social and also environmental features which are; cooperation in accreditation and naming plan, communication with colleagues and organizations with NGOs and UN organizations and stretched out support for group improvement venture, what's more, deal (Peter Utting 2005).
There has been a substantial amount of various corporate social responsibility (CSR) definitions which have been recommended and connected. As indicated by (Hopkins 2004) and (Rahim et al. 2011), CSR can be characterized as handling the partners of the company morally or in a capable way. Mahlouji and Anaraki (2009) are both in support of the definition  put forward by (David Waldman et al.2004) who defined CSR as activities with respect to the organisation that seem to progress, or give in to the advancement of some communal good, past the quick importance of the organisation and its shareholders, which is required by law. There was also another four-dimensional definition that was given by (Carroll 1991) which states that CSR is the social obligation of businesses which envelopes the economic, legal, ethics, and philanthropic responsibility that society has of organisations at a given point in time. The definition was supported by a CSR pyramid (see Appendix). These dimensions indicate that CSR includes the behaviour of a trade with the aim that it is financially gainful, decent, morally tidy and socially stable. The philanthropic responsibility includes voluntarism. According to (Calderon 2011) there are many meanings of CSR both from the scholarly world and the expert grounds; however, the most widely acknowledged definition began by the (European Commission 2001) that characterized CSR as an idea by which organizations incorporate social and natural worries in their business actions and in their collaboration with their stakeholders on a deliberate base. Being socially dependable refers to satisfying legitimate desires as well as going past consents. This common definition is a favourable position as much as a disadvantage for CSR. It is a gain since it permits CSR to come to an expansive range of skill from ecological issues, an abolition of poverty, job creation and work practice, training and human advancement and environmental protection among others. In any case, on the other hand, this wide notion has pulled in numerous critics. Hence, the different views on CSR which led to debates. Nelson (2004) is of the view that for the last three decades, there has been an exuberant civil argument over the performance of corporations in the public arena. In spite of the fact that organizations have begun to air conditioning information about the significance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and a large assortment of initiatives have become known.
Major issues/debates on CSR
CSR is a troublesome idea to hold down; it merges with other ideas such as commercial nationality, economical business, environmental responsibility, the triple bottom line; social and environmental responsibility, business ethics and corporate responsibility (Moon, 2004).
According to (BroomHill 2007), a standout amongst the most arguable issues that is contended amid both neo-liberal and neo-Keynesian analysts is whether CSR is an expense or an advantage to the corporate primary concern. While some neoliberal market analysts stay adamantly wary, others are more questionable. The neo-liberals, therefore, highlights the strategic benefits to be copied from a CSR approach and that the business case for CSR within a company will likely rest on one or more of the subsequent point of views which are a blend of risk management and strategic management approach.
• Human Resources
Corporate Social Responsibility can be a vital guide to enrolment and maintenance, particularly inside the aggressive graduate business sector. CSR can likewise assemble a respectable manner among active staff.
• Risk Management
Controlling risk is a fundamental piece of frequent corporate procedures. Notorieties that take decades to increase can be insolvent in hours through episodes, for example, corruption outrage or environmental mishap. These occasions can likewise draw unwanted reflection from controllers, courts, governments, and media.
• Brand Differentiation
In populous market places, organizations make progress toward 'X Factors' which can isolate them from the opposition in the brains of buyers. A few noteworthy brands, for example, The Body Shop, NIKE et cetera are based on moral qualities.

Bryan Husted (2003) contends that researchers have not analyzed the price suggestions connected with the diverse types of CSR exercises. Van de Velde et al. (2005), set out to examine the cooperation between sustainability and also monetary execution and inferred that elevated sustainability evaluated portfolios have done more exceptionally compared to the low-evaluated portfolios, however not to a critical degree. Other standard market analysts, including both neo-Liberals and neo-Keynesians, are more disposed to consider CSR to be an encouraging supporter to corporate quality. Amalric and Hauser (2005) both analysed the conditions under which an organization may develop its quality throughout the advancement and what's more, the practice of corporate responsibility movements. They contend that, under altered states of flawed rivalry, firms can raise their quality with corporate responsibility exercises. For example, the nationwide case of NIKE incorporation regarding the sweatshop problems in some Asian countries such as Indonesia, and the alleged child labour accusations that almost tarnished the company’s image. The company had to raise their reputation by embracing CSR activities such as being the pioneer in its industry to publish annual reports about what they are doing and what they intend to do for their environment (Business Insider, 2013). According to a 2005 article in Worldwide Finance, (Fittipaldi 2005) disputes that the confirmation is heaping up that corporate responsibility pays. He guarantees that studies are progressively showing that organizations may as of now be garnering a few benefits. One such study by Germany's Oekom Research, a free manageability ranking organization, associates supportability with monetary execution. The study shows shares of organizations with great manageability accounts perform greater to those of their fewer socially mindful contenders (Fittipaldi 2005). Rushton (2002) comparatively disputes that there is proof to demonstrate that corporate social responsibility pays; e.g. what fuelled the success of NIKE today is their innovation. Despite the factory collapse in Bangladesh that brought the company under international scrutiny, the company understood the strength of using innovation as a part of their sustainability activity because it’s what their athletes, consumers, and investors expect and the consistency keeps the brand fresh and interesting, example of such product is the fly knit shoes for runners which were a success (Triple Pundit, 2015). One of the main procedures upheld by added active supporters of CSR is the progression of socially responsible investment (SRI). Constantly, debaters argue that SRI organizations are prone to be in any event as beneficial as others. Here once more, be that as it may, there is conflicting research about the claim. In their study (Sparkes and Cowton 2004) reported the improvement of SRI over later years and contends that not just has SRI developed fundamentally, it has likewise urbanized. On the other hand, a more unconvinced demeanour is taken by (Haigh and Hazelton 2004). The one ending that really can be drawn from this open debate at current is that the issue stays indecisive.
Furthermore, another antagonistic issue that is regularly brought up in the CSR literature is the contention that present executives' obligations and legitimate basics compel the degree to which companies can take part in CSR or selfless exercises devoid of the risk of breaking their lawful obligations to the company and/or to their shareholders (Broomhill, 2007). This worry is not just brought up by companies themselves as a method of reasoning for not embracing CSR, but rather is moreover usually communicated by followers as a requirement that must be evacuated in the event that CSR is to be broadly embraced. For instance, this unease was raised by the Public Interest Advocacy Centre in its accommodation to the Australian Parliamentary Joint Committee on CSR when it expressed its worry that the top advantages of the organization have been translated at the regular rule to imply the budgetary welfare of the shareholders as an aggregate body. This implies that the extent of interest that executives can consider is constrained to the activities of the enterprise's shareholders (Broomhill, 2007). As needs are, partnerships can just have respect to and act in light of a legitimate concern for the more extensive partners in so far as those plotting affect decidedly on the money related to the activities of the shareholders (PAIC, 2005). The report of the Australian Joint Parliamentary Inquiry outlines the position undergone by different observers on this issue as being:
• The Chiefs' prohibitive translation, under which chiefs assert that they can't embrace exercises in view of corporate responsibility, in light of the fact that such exercises may not be specifically to the greatest advantage of the partnership.
 • The shareholders' prohibitive interpretation, which identifies to enterprises giving humanitarian supports or acting with conscious corporate responsibility, on the grounds that those assets could be put as resources into riches era and in this manner comes back to the shareholders.
 • The enlightened interpretation, which opines that interest in corporate responsibility might be proper, be that as it may, just in the event that it can be defended on the premise of yearly profit for speculation (contending with other conceivable ventures) which leads to
 • illuminated self-interest translation, which is of the opinion that cautious and proper corporate responsibility is just about continuously in light of a legitimate concern for the company, and along these lines falls well inside the conduct allowed to executives under up to date obligations (Australian Government 2006: 46). Interestingly, the panel reasoned that the generally fitting point of view for chiefs to take is that of illuminated self-interest analysis. It reasons that 'there is nothing in the present enactment which truly compels executives who wish to add to the lengthy period improvement of their companies by making note of the activities of partners other than shareholders' (Australian Government 2006: 91). Regardless of whether this winding up by the Parliamentary Committee alleviates the worries, or defeats the conflict, the varieties of commentators on these specific issue stand to be seen.

Contrastingly to the neo-liberals, the neo-Keynesians commentators’ argument came from the stakeholders’ theory. They were of the view that for CSR to be efficient and significant, the welfare of a variety of stakeholders other than shareowners needs to be taken into a good relation by organisations. For a better understanding, Stakeholder theory is based on the concept developed by (Freeman 1984) that organisations are made up of a range of stakeholders past their own shareholders and that they ought to be managed with those groups in mind. According to the Public Interest Advocacy Centre (2005), it briefly characterizes stakeholders as any people or gatherings influenced, either specifically or in a roundabout way, by the movements of enterprises. Stakeholders incorporate shareholders, workers, customers, neighbouring groups, indigenous people groups and others.  As of late, the debates on stakeholder theory have concentrated on the subject matter of the nature of the relationship between the organisation and the stakeholder, which NIKE has been able to build over the years. The company implemented a policy that supports their workers which were further documented in their 2013 fiscal report. Hemphill (1997) contends that in spite of the fact that it is an adage that a company should be monetarily dependable; the thin meaning of corporate social responsibility that was obtainable by various scholars is no more doable. Laszlo et al. (2005) contend that partner esteem in light of the monetary, ecological and social effects an organization has on its differing members is a quickly developing wellspring of business gain. Exploiting this basis, nonetheless, requires an adjustment in the mentality of authority and a restrained way to deal with coordinating partner esteem all through the business.
Ethical Strategies
The author will be looking at the ethical strategies that NIKE adopts in order to promote CSR and will be using the company’s sustainability report but before going further, the term ‘’Ethics’’ will be defined. Ethics can be considered as the essential, well thought-out assessment of how we have to perform. Particularly, how we have to compel the chase for self-interest when our actions manipulate others (Business Ethics Blog, 2010). For a few years gone, NIKE brings out an annual report which is also known as sustainability report, detailing their activities for that specific period and the targets for the coming years which has delivered significant improvements overtime. The company is making strides through their comprehension of the interconnected nature of effects and bring those bits of knowledge into their own way to deal with overseeing them. Through various analyses, the company has recognised the most prominent effects, set a target and made duties for each impact which are; waste, energy, labour, chemistry, water, and communities. Although, NIKE have made significant development and trust that they are on track to meet their objectives in many territories, counting decreasing assembling waste, energy and water use. In different regions such as chemistry, communities, and labour, progress has been slower or more troublesome to benchmark. The author will further discuss the main social impacts of their CSR.

CLIMATE &ENERGY
Climate change has been a significant matter. At NIKE, ‘’we look to cut power use and nursery gas (CO2) discharges all through our esteem chain, to decrease our atmosphere sways and in addition energy-related costs’’. Over the years, the company’s target was to reduce CO2 emission on a per unit basis and also reduce energy use during their production. For instance, in regards to the reduction of the CO2 emission, they carried out a survey that the main contributor was footwear production, which represents more than 57% of the evaluated CO2 emissions. From 2011 to 2013 alone, footwear producing understood a per unit emission diminishment of 17%, and down 33% from 2008. This lessening was proficient by diminishing procedure heat loss, enhancing energy administration system and cultivating enhanced commitment amongst manufacturing plants and NIKE's energy field group. There was likewise an improvement in inbound transportation inside the NIKE trademark, with their shipping suppliers helping to convey a 29% lessening in CO2 discharges in 2013 in contrast to 2011. It was accomplished to a limited extent by transporting more items by sea than air, therefore diminishing fuel utilization and expense. Generally, the company consistently promotes for important climate strategies through progressing labour with associations such as the Business for Innovative Climate and Energy Policy (BICEP), which they established in 2008 collectively with some real brands (NIKE, 2013)

WATER
Another target for NIKE was to use borrowed water efficiently. In other words, slash the use of water drastically. They are gaining ground in surveying and comprehension of the general water impression, which helps to recognize sways over their quality chain. In spite of the fact that they have focused on upgrades in water effectiveness for assembling and materials handling, NIKE perceives that effectiveness is not by any means the only significant measure. Water value, water security and access to water and sanitation additionally affect inventory system and their business, influencing everything from the ease of access of crude materials to the wellbeing, what's more, the success of workers and their communities. Over the years, the company has been looking and testing new innovation for reduction of the usage of water for example, the waterless material colouring machines created by Dye Coo Textile Systems B.V. These machines use recycled carbon dioxide to a certain extent than water in the colouring process, which has the possibility to fundamentally cut water use. Also, the company has a finished good factory that makes apparel and equipment where they are still putting methods in place to precisely trail water usage. Such advancement is payable to the execution of more resourceful colouring machines, better cooling towers, water resourceful toilets, and paddle for foot as a substitute for screw or lever taps on sinks to lessen surplus water (NIKE 2013)
WASTE
The major aim of waste management regarding NIKE is they intend to plan their items to confine the making of waste in assembling, instead of repurposing waste sometime later which at last diminishes or squander up and down their quality chain, including at end of life. In other words, the company tries to design products that will reduce the occurrence of waste by focusing on what goes into the products and packaging. One major instance that was given is their shoebox, some years back, precisely 1995; the company’s shoe box was made from 100% recycled material. Also, one of the essential ways the company has used to drive a waste reduction in their store network is by means of the NIKE Materials Sustainability Index and its footwear and clothing files. By measuring the natural effect of picked materials and the waste proficiency of plans, their designers can settle on better decisions. Also, they make each endeavour to drive waste as high up the quality chain as would be prudent preferably back into their own particular item through shut circle advancement. Examples include incorporate material seller take-back projects and pounding elastic outsoles once more into new outsoles, including testing. Furthermore, investigating better approaches to expand the level of scrap substance that can be blended once again into new outsole elastic. The following best choices are NIKE Grind applications, fundamental reusing arrangements, and after that energy recuperation (NIKE 2013)
LABOUR
Labour is a vital part of NIKE’s impact in the community. This is because it will help in a range of human effect and chances to bring about genuine change. They believed that a fruitful contract industrial facility can make much more progress, however, more dynamic engagement with workers as an origin of advancement and quality, which likewise presents an open door for workers to gain. Basically, they try to work with other factories in order to enhance their human development and reduce the rate of unemployment in their community (NIKE 2013)
According to (NIKE 2013), the above-mentioned are some of the ethical strategies that the company has adopted in order to help the community and also give back either through their products or manufacturing process.
In conclusion, there have been several debates regarding CSR. Today’s services market place is characterized by the joining of strengths, such as globalisation of markets, the raising pace of innovative change and increasing monetary turbulence. Adding to this chaotic blend is the additional weight on organisations to show obligation to their society. Since the start of the new century, the sense of organisation’s responsibility has expanded to include responsibility to local communities, neighbourhood environment and the globe (Sloan, Legrand and Chen 2013). In the recommendation, responsible marketing ought to represent a change in importance away from usual approaches focused on a certain aspect of a product towards an ethical approach, which takes a comprehensive view of the product from a structure to a vital phase and considers the setting in which it is created. It is about the provision of information about the produce, service, and providers to the customer along with advice on how best to handle the product and service until the ultimate removal. It is about product and service stewardship (Sloan, Legrand and Chen 2013).

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